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Fare rivivere in un'altra lingua la parola letteraria è al tempo stesso opera alchemica e prova di audacia. Qui la trasmutazione si esercita non su metalli guizzanti di vita, ma su una materia altrettanto ricca e pulsante: il fraseggio, la sonorità, il timbro, le scelte lessicali, tutto ciò che rende unico un testo d'autore. È con una simile unicità che si misura il traduttore. Fallirebbe però il suo compito se si prefiggesse di ricalcare l'originale o giudicasse la propria impresa davvero compiuta, e non solo l'approssimazione provvisoria a un'impossibile perfezione. Perché tradurre ha a che vedere con l'ombra, più che con la trasparenza della luce. Secondo Antonio Prete - che arruola appassionatamente in questo saggio le sue competenze di comparatista, di traduttore e di poeta - significa infatti agire nella zona umbratile che si colloca tra lingua d'origine e lingua d'approdo, prestando voce, inflessione ed energia inventiva a forme di mondo diverse dal nostro. Un cimento che ha intime affinità con il poetare. Senza essere poeta non si può tradurre un vero poeta, sosteneva già Leopardi, alle prese con il secondo libro dell'Eneide. Lo confermano le versioni in cui si sono provati i maggiori poeti italiani del Novecento, dal Puskin di Giudici all'Apollinaire di Caproni e Sereni, dal Racine di Ungaretti e Luzi al Goethe di Fortini, dai lirici greci di Quasimodo allo Shakespeare "per l'orecchio, non per l'occhio"; di Montale.
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Surveying over 300 languages, this typological study presents new theoretical insights into the nature of agreement, as well as empirical findings about the distribution of agreement patterns in the world's languages. Focussing primarily on agreement in gender, number and person, but with reference to agreement in other smaller categories, Ranko Matasovic aims to discover which patterns of agreement are widespread and common in languages, and which are rather limited in their distribution. He sheds new light on a range of important theoretical questions such as what agreement actually is, what areal, typological and genetic patterns exist across agreement systems, and what problems in the analysis of agreement remain unresolved.
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Human languages exhibit fascinating commonalities and variations in the ways they describe motion events. In this volume, the contributors present their research results concerning motion event descriptions in the languages that they investigate. The volume features new proposals based on a broad range of data involving different kinds of motion events previously understudied, such as caused motion (e.g., kick a ball across) and even visual motion (e.g., look into a hole). Special attention is also paid to deixis, a hitherto neglected aspect of motion event descriptions. A wide range of languages is examined, including those spoken in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The results provide new insights into the patterns languages deploy to represent motion events. This volume presents a collection of papers written by those who gathered at the theme session 'Typology of motion descriptions in broader perspective: Going beyond motion to caused motion and vision' held at the 11th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference in Xian, China, 11-16 July 2011.
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Language teaching, dementia, personal identity, the training of law students - if you skim the contents of this book, you might wonder how a single field could cover such a diverse range of topics. But all the topics in this book have a common foundation: peoples' use of language. The way people use language can build relationships or cause interpersonal difficulties. Language can be used to exert power over others or to resist others' exertion of power. Language is used in different ways by different disciplines, increasing the challenge for novices in a field. And myriad social and psychological factors can affect success in learning a new language. All of these issues, and more, are covered in the field of applied linguistics.
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Chinese Translation Studies in the 21st Century, which presents a selection of some of the best articles published in the journal Perspectives in a five-year period (2012-2017), highlights the vitality of Translation Studies as a profession and as a field of enquiry in China. As the country has gradually opened up to the West, translation academic programmes have burgeoned to cater for the needs of Chinese corporations and political institutions.The book is divided into four sections, in which authors explore theoretical and conceptual issues (such as the connection between translation and adaptation, multimodality, and the nature of norms), audiovisual translation (including studies on news translation and the translation of children’s movies), bibliographies and bibliometrics (to assess, for example, the international visibility of Chinese scholars), and interpreting (analyzing pauses in simultaneous interpreting and sign language among other aspects).
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Click Consonants is an indispensable volume for those who want to understand the linguistics of clicks. Contributions include cutting edge research on the phonetic and phonological characteristics of clicks, as well as on sound changes involving clicks, and clicks in perception, in L2 acquisition, and in apraxia of speech.
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A state-of-the-art survey of complex words, this volume brings together a team of leading international morphologists to demonstrate the wealth and breadth of the study of word-formation. Encompassing methodological, empirical and theoretical approaches, each chapter presents the results of cutting-edge research into linguistic complexity, including lexico-semantic aspects of complex words, the structure of complex words, and corpus-based case studies. Drawing on examples from a wide range of languages, it covers both general aspects of word-formation, and aspects specific to particular languages, such as English, French, Greek, Basque, Spanish, German and Slovak. Theoretical considerations are supported by a number of in-depth case studies focusing on the role of affixes, as well as word-formation processes such as compounding, affixation and conversion. Attention is also devoted to typological issues in word-formation. The book will be an invaluable resource for academic researchers and graduate students interested in morphology, linguistic typology and corpus linguistics.
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Come facciamo a comprenderci? Ovvero, in che cosa consiste la comprensione del linguaggio? Scoprire i meccanismi psico-neurali alla base della comprensione spiega davvero il successo della comunicazione? Questo libro offre un'introduzione alle differenti teorie della comprensione, facendo interagire le analisi filosofiche del concetto di comprensione con le più recenti teorie empiriche della neurosemantica.
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Most Arabic textbooks concentrate on morphology and syntax, but while these provide the indispensable structural base, students still find there is a wide gap between their theoretical knowledge and their practical ability to write connected prose. This unique textbook concentrates on the connectors (those articles, phrases, or idioms which join words, phrases, clauses, or sentences) in a functional setting with the aim of developing and improving the writing skills of intermediate and advanced students of Arabic as a foreign language. Each lesson of The Connectors begins with a presentation of the structures, followed by a sample text and sample sentences, before moving on to a graded series of exercises. The book contains twenty-seven lessons, including five review lessons, and a sample test at the end.
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