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Applied Spatial Data Analysis with R, second edition, is divided into two basic parts, the first presenting R packages, functions, classes and methods for handling spatial data. This part is of interest to users who need to access and visualise spatial data. Data import and export for many file formats for spatial data are covered in detail, as is the interface between R and the open source GRASS GIS and the handling of spatio-temporal data. The second part showcases more specialised kinds of spatial data analysis, including spatial point pattern analysis, interpolation and geostatistics, areal data analysis and disease mapping. The coverage of methods of spatial data analysis ranges from standard techniques to new developments, and the examples used are largely taken from the spatial statistics literature. All the examples can be run using R contributed packages available from the CRAN website, with code and additional data sets from the book's own website. Compared to the first edition, the second edition covers the more systematic approach towards handling spatial data in R, as well as a number of important and widely used CRAN packages that have appeared since the first edition. This book will be of interest to researchers who intend to use R to handle, visualise, and analyse spatial data. It will also be of interest to spatial data analysts who do not use R, but who are interested in practical aspects of implementing software for spatial data analysis. It is a suitable companion book for introductory spatial statistics courses and for applied methods courses in a wide range of subjects using spatial data, including human and physical geography, geographical information science and geoinformatics, the environmental sciences, ecology, public health and disease control, economics, public administration and political science. The book has a website where complete code examples, data sets, and other support material may be found: http://www.asdar-book.org. The authors have taken part in writing and maintaining software for spatial data handling and analysis with R in concert since 2003.
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In 1650, Archbishop James Ussher of Armagh joined the long-running theological debate on the age of the earth by famously announcing that creation had occurred on October 23, 4004 B.C. Although widely challenged during the Enlightenment, this belief in a six-thousand-year-old planet was only laid to rest during a revolution of discovery in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In this relatively brief period, geologists reconstructed the immensely long history of the earth-and the relatively recent arrival of human life. Highlighting a discovery that radically altered existing perceptions of a human's place in the universe as much as the theories of Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud did, Bursting the Limits of Time is a herculean effort by one of the world's foremost experts on the history of geology and paleontology to sketch this historicization of the natural world in the age of revolution.
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Cybercartography in a Reconciliation Community: Engaging Intersecting Perspectives, Volume Eight gathers perspectives on issues related to reconciliation--primarily in a residential / boarding school context--and demonstrates the unifying power of Cybercartography by identifying intersections among different knowledge perspectives. Concerned with understanding approaches toward reconciliation and education, preference is given to reflexivity in research and knowledge dissemination. The positionality aspect of reflexivity is reflected in the chapter contributions concerning various aspects of cybercartographic atlas design and development research, and related activities. In this regard, the book offers theoretical and practical knowledge of collaborative transdisciplinary research through its reflexive assessment of the relationships, processes and knowledge involved in cybercartographic research. Using, most specifically, the Residential Schools Land Memory Mapping Project for context, Cybercartography in a Reconciliation Community provides a high speed tour through the project's innovative collaborative approach to mapping institutional material and volunteered geographic information. Exploring Cybercartography through the lens of this atlas project provides for a comprehensive understanding of both Cybercartography and transdisciplinary research, while informing the reader of education and reconciliation initiatives in Canada, the U.S., the U.K. and Italy. Includes a variety of examples of reconciliation work, especially related to residential / boarding schools, and examines common themes in the issues discussed Offers both conceptual and applied dimensions, and provides a good example of a reflexive approach to both research and knowledge dissemination Addresses a modern application for Cybercartography that is of considerable societal importance Provides historiographical accounts of atlas-making processes, multidisciplinary perspectives on research issues and conceptual explorations
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Il volume affronta il problema delle difficoltà in matematica in contesto scolastico: fenomeno diffuso e preoccupante, che a volte si manifesta in forme di rifiuto totale della disciplina e della razionalità che la caratterizza, e davanti al quale l'insegnante si sente impotente e frustrato. Il testo intende dare strumenti agli insegnanti per affrontare questo problema. Insistendo sulla necessità di uscire dall'approccio locale che caratterizza l'intervento di recupero tradizionale, centrato sugli errori e sulle conoscenze necessarie per dare riposte corrette, e che si rivela per lo più fallimentare, propone un approccio alternativo centrato invece sull'allievo. L'intervento di recupero diventa allora l'ultimo momento di un processo che vede l'insegnante coinvolto in prima persona nell'osservazione e nell'interpretazione dei comportamenti degli allievi. In questa ottica è quindi importante poter disporre di strumenti d'osservazione alternativi, e di un repertorio di interpretazioni possibili per i comportamenti osservati: e proprio alla costruzione di questi strumenti e di questo repertorio è dedicata gran parte del volume.
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Jürgen Renn examines the role of knowledge in global transformations going back to the dawn of civilization while providing vital perspectives on the complex challenges confronting us today in the Anthropocene--this new geological epoch shaped by humankind. Renn reframes the history of science and technology within a much broader history of knowledge, analyzing key episodes such as the evolution of writing, the emergence of science in the ancient world, the Scientific Revolution of early modernity, the globalization of knowledge, industrialization, and the profound transformations wrought by modern science. He investigates the evolution of knowledge using an array of disciplines and methods, from cognitive science and experimental psychology to earth science and evolutionary biology. The result is an entirely new framework for understanding structural changes in systems of knowledge--and a bold new approach to the history and philosophy of science.
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Further Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography, Third Edition, Volume Nine, presents a substantively updated edition of a classic text on cybercartography, presenting new and returning readers alike with the latest advances in the field. The book examines the major elements of cybercartography and embraces an interactive, dynamic, multisensory format with the use of multimedia and multimodal interfaces. Material covering the major elements, key ideas and definitions of cybercartography is newly supplemented by several chapters on two emerging areas of study, including international dimensions and language mapping.This new edition delves deep into Mexico, Brazil, Denmark, Iran and Kyrgyzstan, demonstrating how insights emerge when cybercartography is applied in different cultural contexts. Meanwhile, other chapters contain case studies by a talented group of linguists who are breaking new ground by applying cybercartography to language mapping, a breakthrough that will provide new ways of understanding the distribution and movement of language and culture.
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Geostatistical models and techniques such as kriging and stochastic multi-realizations exploit spatial correlations to evaluate natural resources, help optimize their development, and address environmental issues related to air and water quality, soil pollution, and forestry. Geostatistics: Modeling Spatial Uncertainty, Second Edition presents a comprehensive, up-to-date reference on the topic, now featuring the latest developments in the field. The authors explain both the theory and applications of geostatistics through a unified treatment that emphasizes methodology. Key topics that are the foundation of geostatistics are explored in-depth, including stationary and nonstationary models; linear and nonlinear methods; change of support; multivariate approaches; and conditional simulations. The Second Edition highlights the growing number of applications of geostatistical methods and discusses three key areas of growth in the field: New results and methods, including kriging very large datasets; kriging with outliers; nonseparable space-time covariances; multipoint simulations; pluri-gaussian simulations; gradual deformation; and extreme value geostatistics. Newly formed connections between geostatistics and other approaches such as radial basis functions, Gaussian Markov random fields, and data assimilation. New perspectives on topics such as collocated cokriging, kriging with an external drift, discrete Gaussian change-of-support models, and simulation algorithms.
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How, in the years before the advent of urban maps, did city residents conceptualize and navigate their communities? In his strikingly original book, Daniel Lord Smail develops a new method and a new vocabulary for understanding how urban men and women thought about their personal geography. His thorough research of property records of late medieval Marseille leads him to conclude that its inhabitants charted their city, its social structure, and their own identities within that structure through a set of cartographic grammars which powerfully shaped their lives.Prior to the fourteenth century, different interest groups—notaries, royal officials, church officials, artisans—developed their own cartographies in accordance with their own social, political, or administrative agendas. These competing templates were created around units ranging from streets and islands to vicinities and landmarks. Smail shows how the notarial template, which privileged the street as the most basic marker of address, gradually emerged as the cartographic norm. This transformation, he argues, led to the rise of modern urban maps and helped to inaugurate the process whereby street addresses were attached to citizen identities, a crucial development in the larger enterprise of nation building.Imaginary Cartographies opens up powerful new means for exploring late medieval and Renaissance urban society while advancing understanding of the role of social perceptions in history.
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An Introduction to Statistical Learning provides an accessible overview of the field of statistical learning, an essential toolset for making sense of the vast and complex data sets that have emerged in fields ranging from biology to finance to marketing to astrophysics in the past twenty years. This book presents some of the most important modeling and prediction techniques, along with relevant applications. Topics include linear regression, classification, resampling methods, shrinkage approaches, tree-based methods, support vector machines, clustering, and more. Color graphics and real-world examples are used to illustrate the methods presented. Since the goal of this textbook is to facilitate the use of these statistical learning techniques by practitioners in science, industry, and other fields, each chapter contains a tutorial on implementing the analyses and methods presented in R, an extremely popular open source statistical software platform.
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L’indagine statistica (survey) è il metodo di ricerca fondamentale nelle scienze sociali. Come si progetta un’indagine che abbia validità scientifica? Come si realizza un sondaggio demoscopico o una moderna indagine di mercato? Quali analisi compiere sui dati? Come interpretare i risultati? Il volume illustra in modo semplice e operativo come realizzare un’indagine statistica, dando rilievo agli aspetti della validità e della qualità dei dati. Presenta, inoltre, le più recenti tecniche per effettuare indagini computer-assisted (telefoniche e via Internet). Gli esempi sono realizzati con il software Excel.
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